Tissue Healing in Space
Tissue Healing in Space

Partner - Physical and Material Sciences - USA

Walter Voit

  Contact :    Department of Materials Science and Engineering   University of Texas at Dallas   phone: +1  972 883 5788   email:    Walter.Voit@utdallas.edu    Website:  http://utdallas.edu/    

Contact :

Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Texas at Dallas

phone: +1 972 883 5788

email:  Walter.Voit@utdallas.edu

Website: http://utdallas.edu/




Walter Everett Voit is a tenured associate professor at the University of Texas at Dallas where he explores the thermomechanics of shape memory polymers, flexible bioelectronics, next generation neural interfaces, 3-D printing, degradable polymers and the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers. Prof. Voit is a cofounder and Chief Technology Officer of startup company Syzygy Memory Plastics, which has licensed intellectual property from both Georgia Tech and UT Dallas in pursuit of next-generation acoustics and electronics products based on shape memory polymers. Voit also co-founded Adaptive 3D Technologies and Ares Materials in 2014 and co-founded Pascalor, Qualia and Polycraft World in 2015. In 2016 Qualia nucleated several new subsidiaries including the Qualia Foundation, Qualia Labs, Myelife Solutions, and Skin Aware. Dr. Voit is the President and Science and Technology Chair of the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards through the National Institute of Standards and Technology and an International Atomic Energy Agency consultant in the field of radiation crosslinked shape memory polymers. Voit is a DARPA Young Faculty Awardee and DARPA Director’s Fellow and works closely with industry including Texas Instruments, GlaxoSmithKline, Verily, Medtronic, Qionics, Halliburton, Qorvo, Plexon and Zyvex. Voit graduated high school valedictorian and was recruited to UT Dallas through the Eugene McDermott Scholars Program. As a McDermott Scholar, Voit worked at Los Alamos National Labs and at Dallas nanotechnology startup company Zyvex. Voit received a B.S. in Computer Science in May 2005 and a Masters in Artificial Intelligence from UT Dallas in August 2006. Voit’s Master’s thesis work was conducted under the mentorship of Prof. I. Hal Sudborough where their team helped improve the upper bound of the pancake problem which has not been beaten since (Bill) Gates and Papadimitriou published on the subject in 1979. Dr. Voit was named a Presidential Scholar at Georgia Tech and was selected to the prestigious TI:GER program, a partnership with the College of Management and Emory Law School. Voit performed doctoral work under the guidance of Ken Gall. Voit has authored and co-authored more than 50 manuscripts and book chapters (15 authored in 2016) with an H-index of 16 and an i10-index of 20. He is inventor and co-inventor on multiple patents, provisional patents and invention disclosures and enjoys basketball, soccer, snowboarding, rafting, hiking and travelling. Prof. Voit currently mentors 2 research professors, 5 technicians, 2 administrative staff, 10 post docs, 15 doctoral students, 2 masters students, more than 50 undergraduate students and several high school students and helps manage startup companies in Dallas. Voit has graduated 7 doctoral students and 7 post docs who have all launched their own successful careers: faculty positions at UT Dallas and Inha University; employment with large industries, Rockwell Collins and Alcoa; consulting with McKinsey and Co; and self-employment with Pascalor, Qualia Medical, Ares Materials and Adaptive 3D Technologies.


Thermomechanics of shape memory polymers, flexible bioelectronics, next generation neural interfaces, 3-D printing, degradable polymers and the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.


Shape memory polymers; polymer manufacturing; ionizing radiation; thermomechanical properties; biopolymer mechanics.

Available equipment and techniques:



This section describes the resources available to Dr. Lu and Dr. Baughman and their students for the project at UTD. They have been separated in eight groups: (I) Resources managed by Dr. Lu; (II) Resources available to the project in the department of mechanical engineering; (III) Resources managed by Dr. Baughman; (IV) Resources managed by Dr. Tadesse; (V) Campus resources located at the Natural Science & Engineering Research Laboratories (NSERL) at UTD; (VI) Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas System; (VII) Resources available at University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; (VIII) Resources available at Lintec of America. The use of resources managed by the PI/co-PI is free of charge. The use of machine shop by graduate students or postdocs is free of charge. Machining by professional machinists is charged by an hourly fee ($50/hour). In (IV), the use of microscale fabrication equipment in clean room, and optical microscopy is free of charge. All the consumables will be supplied and paid by this project. The use of nanoscale fabrication (e-beam, focused ion beam) and characterization (nanoindenter, SEM, TEM) equipment is charged by an hourly fee ($45/h). In (V), the use of TACC is free of charge. All graduate students working under the supervision of the PI/co-PI are trained for use of equipment and computing facilities that will be used in this project.  


(I)                RESOURCES MANAGED BY DR. LU

Laboratory Spaces

Ample space is available for the project. Dr. Lu and Dr. Qian share a combined lab space of 2500 sq ft. A computer cluster (item 1 below), jointly operated by Dr. Lu and Dr. Qian, is housed in the Data Center at the Erik Johnson School of Engineering and Computer Science, and managed by a team of full-time computer professionals. The Data Center is equipped with a thermal management system, an uninterrupted power supply, and a dedicated power generator.



(1) An Instron All Electric E10000 aixal/torsional material test system with a temperature chamber (-100ºC to 350 ºC). Several fixtures are available; these include three-point or four-point bending, wedge tension, compression, a self-aligned compression, and an Arcan grip for applying biaxial stress state on an Arcan specimen. 


(2) A highly sensitive miniature split Hopkinson tension bar for measurements of dynamic behavior of small soft samples such as single fiber and tympanic membrane at high strain rates.


(3) A miniature shaking system for direct measurement of viscoelastic properties in the frequency domain within 100-20,000 Hz for small samples.


(4) An 80-ft long Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) for testing the mechanical behavior of polymers and composites under high strain rates.


(5) A Cordin 550 ultra-high speed, color digital camera with a frame rate between 2,000 and 4 million frames per second. Two high intensity light sources are used to illuminate the viewing field. The camera acquires 62 frames in one run.

(6) An Agilent G200 Nano Indenter System with a Dynamic Contact Module (DCM), a Sample Heating Stage (room temperature to 350 °C), NanoVision for surface topography measurement, a Continuous Stiffness Module (CSM) that allows measurement of local mechanical behavior in both the time-domain and frequency-domain of polymers and biotissues to measure viscoelastic properties.


(7) A 12-node NVIDIA CPU/GPU parallel computing cluster, with 450 co-processors in each GPU. The estimated speed is 3.6 TeraFlops.




A machine shop is equipped with 3 CNC lathe machines, one Monarch lathe, 4 CNC mills, 3D printer using ABS as the model material, one plasma cutting station, grinding machines, metal forming machines, welding equipment, etc.


Seven Instron electro-mechanical Instron machines (up to 10 metric ton force) for mechanical testing. Various fixtures are available including a self-aligned tensile fixture, a self-aligned compression fixture and an Arcan fixture for testing under biaxial stress state at both small and large strains. An Instron temperature chamber is available to allow materials characterization on an Instron machine under isothermal condition between -160ºC and 300ºC.






·         Perkin Elmer PYRIS 1 TGA

·         Perkin Elmer DSC and Pyris Diamond DSC

·         Perkin Elmer PYRIS Diamond and DMA 7e DMA

·         Instron 5848 Microtester

·         Textechno FAVIMAT textiel tester


Imaging devices:

·         LEO 1530 Variable Pressure SEM equipped with EDX and Zyvex Nanomanipulator 200A

·         AFM Veeco Nanoprobe 4

·         Kelvin probe measurement system



·         Four CVD furnaces for synthesis of multiwall and single wall nanotubes

·         Small CVD Parylene Deposition system

·         R.D. Webb Co. Red Turbo High Vacuum Furnace

·         Five well-equipped rooms for chemical synthesis 

·         MBraun glove box with O2 and H2O analyzers


Yarn production

·         Core yarn spinner

·         Flyer yarn spinner

·         False-twist yarn spinner


Multilayer Vacuum Deposition System and Photonics (special bay in clean room dedicated for organic devices including:

·         2 State-of-the-Art Angstrom Engineering High Vacuum Multi-Source Organic/Inorganic Deposition System in an MBraun Globe Box connected through a loading lock

·         Laurell Technologies spin coater

·         Gradient sublimation purification system for organic materials

·         Keithley 4200 Semiconductor Parameter Characterization System

·         2 Keithley 236 source measurement system

·         Newport-Orile 91160 solar simulator

·         Photo Research PR-650 spectracolorimeter

·         ALESSI Probe Station

·         AMBIOS XP-1 Surface Profilometer

·         Four MBraun glove boxes with O2 and H2O analyzers


General and Infrared Spectroscopy

·         JY Horiba LabRam HR with Helium Neon, Krypton Argon, and NIR lasers, temperature control, diamond  anvil cell, X-Y stage Raman microscope

·         Perkin Elmer Lambda 900 UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer

·         Perkin Elmer LS55 Fluorescence/Luminecence Spectrophotometer

·         Perkin Elmer Spectrum GX FT-NIR Raman Spectrometer

·         Perkin Elmer AutoImage FTIR Microscope

·         Optical Interferometer  for 405 nm (40 mW), 632 nm (50 mW) and 830 nm (500 mW)


Electrochemistry Equipment

·         PARC 273, 263, and Versastat Potentiostat/Galvanostats with 10A Power Booster

·         PARC 1250 Frequency Response Analyzer

·         Power Step 2.2 and Power Sine 2.2 Software

·         ZSimpWin Impedance Modeling Software v.2.00

·         Solartron 1260 Frequency Response Analyzer

·         ElChema EQCN-701 Quartz Crystal Nanobalance

·         ElChema PS205 Potentiostat/Galvanostat

·         Radiometer Voltstat 40 Potentiostat/EIS

·         Arbin HSP2043, 6-Channel Supercapacitor/Battery Test Station

·         Arbin BT4, 4-Channel Supercapacitor/Battery Test Station

·         Electrochemical Workstation CH660B


electrophysical characterization

·         4284A Precision LCR Meter

·         4338B Milliohm Meter

·         8648A Synthesized RF Sgnal Generator

·         Tektronix Oscilloscope TDS2002 with Tektronix Differential Amplifier

·         Thermal Power Figure of Merit: TE-Technology ZT-meter TF-101.



  • Quatum Design MPMSXL SQUID
  • Bruker EMX ESR


Low temperature Devices

·         Quantum Design Magnetic Properties Measurement System

·         Quantum Design Physical Properties Measurement System

·         Closed cycle cryo-cooling system

·         Bruker ESR EMX with Oxford instruments liquid He cryostat (equipped for low field microwave absorption (LFMA) measurements




Computerized muscle synthesis equipment (ECM)

·          Muscle Synthesis system for conducting polymer with Electrochemical Analyzer that can perform (1) Cyclic voltammetry (CV), (2) linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), (3) Chronoamperometry (CA), (4) Chronocoulometry (CC), (5) Amperometric curve (i-t), (6) Chronopotentiometry with Current Ramp (CPCR), (7)Open Circuit Potential-Time(OCP-t).

·         Rapid prototyping machines:

(1)               Fortus 250 MC, (2) Dimension  Elite 3D printer, (3) Fortus 400 MC for manufacturing wide thermoplastics,  (4) MakerBot Replicator 2 Desktop 3D Printer

(5) Thing-O-Matic 3D Printer.

·         Automated Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscle Fabrication setup

·         Computer controlled artificial muscles/actuators characterization setup         

·         Phantom MIROEX2 High Speed Camera

·         Laser Vibrometer Systems

·         CNC Baron Machine and Formech Vacuum Former 300XQ

·         Universal Laser cutter

·         Alien Aurora R-4 high performance CAD modeling and simulation workstations.

·         Biped Humanoid robots - developed in Dr. Tadesse’s laboratory (for outreach activities and research on smart materials)

·         Fuel - powered underwater actuation system: Hydrogen and oxygen cylinders with controllable mass flow and pressure for both underwater and outside water test of actuators




PI Walter Voit – Advanced Polymer Research Lab: The Jonsson School at UT Dallas features state-of-the-art classrooms and labs (including the lab of Voit), which are located in the 330,000-square-foot Engineering and Computer Science Complex, the 192,000-square-foot Natural Science and Engineering Research Laboratory (NSERL) building and the 225,000-squae-foot Bioengineering Science Building (BSB). Should the need arise, collaborating faculty and students in this proposal also have the ability to work with researchers at Dallas’s acclaimed UT Southwestern Medical Center, which features advanced biomedical labs containing the latest equipment and resources.

        We understand that the most fertile areas for research often lie at the intersections of traditional disciplines, where the insights of people coming at problems from different perspectives frequently produce surprising and valuable results. The $85 million NSERL is tangible evidence of our belief in this philosophy, housing an array of engineers, physicists, chemists, microbiologists and their graduate students. The $108 million BSB is a second state of the art building housing an array of laboratories for bioengineering, chemistry, biology, and material sciences with emphasis for collaboration and cooperative research.

        UT Dallas will provide lab space in NSERL/BSB Complex. This combined available space will include approximately 3,500 sq. ft. and houses 9 chemical fume hoods, and contains a vacuum pump, a chemical refrigerator, and a computing area. The PI has his own desktops, laptops, printers, and departmental computer support. The wet laboratories already have the capability for polymer synthesis, prototype manufacturing, and mechanical testing. The PI’s graduate students are certified Clean Room users. AFM, TEM, XPS, XRD located in the Materials Science and Engineering Department are available to the PI. The NSERL building maintains a state of the art animal vivarium for small animal species. Staffing includes a full-time animal tech to clean and feed animals, a full-time husbandry supervisor, a part-time licensed veterinarian multiple surgical suites, quarantine and perfusion rooms.  Additional rooms are available for specialized animal needs, including behavioral training, histology and training. Specific equipment, potentially germane to this proposal includes:



Synthetic Equipment

·         Programmable Temperature Controlled Oven

·         Vacuum Temperature Controlled Oven

·         UV Translinker with 365 nm wavelength bulbs*

·         Custom fluorine gas reactor

·         Temperature Controlled Parr Reactor with stirring

Chemical Characterization

·         Two Size Exclusion Chromatography instruments

o   THF line, auto-sampler, detectors: RI, UV-Vis, light scattering

o   DMF/Chloroform line, Shimadzu HPLC, auto-sampler, oven, detector: RI, PDA

·         Gas Chromatograph

·         Shimadzu FTIR Affinity-1

·         Shimadzu GC-MS QP2010-Plus

·         Shimadzu BioTech Performance MALDI-TOF MS

·         UV-Vis

Materials Characterization

·         Mettler Toledo Differential Scanning Calorimeter

·         Mettler Toledo Thermogravimetric Analyzer with outgas to tandem Mass Spectrometer and Gas Phase FTIR

·         Mettler Toledo Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer with frequency range up to 1000 Hz

·         Lloyds Universal Testing Machine

·         4 ft., 4 microphone Impedance Tube operating within the audible frequency range

·         Electrochemical analysis

·         Metricon 2010/M

·         Leicia DM4000 Microscope

Materials Processing

·         microFab workstation with a YAG HIPPO laser with polymer cutting resolution of 20 microns for manufacturing precision biomedical devices

·         Gravograph LS100, 100 Watt C02 laser with a 90 micron spot size for other device fabrication

·         Malvern Rosand RH-7 Capillary Rheometer

·         Brabender IntelliTorque with attachable 3-piece mixer and conical twin screw extruder

·         Leesona Model 861 Winder

·         Custom electrospinning for nonwoven fiber webs

·         Carver 3851-0 Press

·         RAITH E-Beam Lithography tool (shared tool from NSF MRI Proposal)

·         Lulzbot TAZ-5

·         3Drag FFF 3D Printer with syringe print head

·         Cube FFF 3D Printer





Advanced Microscopy Laboratory at UTD (http://mse.utdallas.edu/facilities/overview.html)

The following relevant facilities are available for this project.

  • Optical Surface Infrared Spectroscopy
  • A FEI Nova 200 NanoLab, which is a dual column SEM/FIB equipped with a Zyvex F100 nano-manipulation state. It combines ultra-high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) etch and deposition for nanoscale prototyping, machining, 2-D and 3-D characterization, and analysis. It will be used for nanotomography of aerogels, and some nanoscale experiments such as bending of nanofibers.
  • A JEOL 2100 F high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is a 200kV field emission TEM with a resolution of better than 0.19 nm, and in-situ STM/TEM analysis.
  • A JEOL ARM200F TEM, with atomic resolutions. 
  • A Rigaku Ultima III X-ray Diffractometer system. The instrument enables a variety of applications such as in-plane and normal geometry phase identification, quantitative analysis, lattice parameter refinement, crystallite size, structure refinement, residual stress, density, roughness (from reflectivity geometries), and depth-controlled phase identification.
  • A Raith 150 E-beam system.


Cleanroom Research Laboratory at UTD (http://www.utdallas.edu/research/cleanroom/)

A fully equipped Cleanroom Research Laboratory is available for this project. It is managed and maintained by 6 full-time professionals. The facilities are available for graduate students, and postdocs in this project for preparation of some samples for nanoscale characterizations. The Lab includes the following major pieces of equipment.

Characterization & Metrology




Plasma Etch






Thermal Processing


Thin Film Deposition


Surface Chemistry (Wet Processing)


(V). Texas Advanced Computing Center at The University of Texas System (http://www.tacc.utexas.edu/)

The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) located at The University of Texas at Austin in the University of Texas System is one of the leading centers of computational excellence in the United States. TACC is fully accessible by UTD researchers. A dedicated fast data line (1 GB/s) allows fast transfer of data between UT Austin and UTD. TACC will be used for some of the multiscale computation in this project.




A range of testing, measurement and computational facilities are available for use in this project. Some relevant facilities available in various laboratories (Advanced Materials Processing Lab and Structural Testing Lab in the Dept. of Aerospace Engineering) are listed below:


·         A Beowulf Linux cluster of 130 dual core nodes (260 processors) is available at UA for parallel computing necessary for complex simulations. Each node has two Pentium 4 processors at 2.4GHz, a 1 GB memory and an Ethernet card. The Beowulf cluster is expandable. In addition, the state-of-the-art supercomputing resources of the Alabama Supercomputer Center (ASC) are available to all Alabama research campuses.  ASC is located in the Alabama Supercomputer Authority's 24,000 square foot building in Huntsville, Alabama. The center houses an SGI Ultraviolet 2000, and a locally architected fat node cluster called the DMC (Dense Memory Cluster). These high performance computing systems are accessed from the college campuses via encrypted SSH and X-Windows connections. The SGI Ultraviolet has 256 processor cores and 4 TB of memory in a single, large node.  This gives the UV a computing capacity of 5.2 TFLOPS, utilizing Sandy Bridge architecture processors.  The DMC cluster has 1800 processor cores and 10.1 TB of distributed memory.  The DMC also has eight T10 GPU chips and eightC2070 GPUs.  The entire DMC system has a capacity of 16.4 TFLOPS of conventional processor capacity, 18.6 TFLOPS of single precision GPU capacity, and 4.8 TFLOPS of double precision GPU capacity.  A Panasas shared file system provides 86 TB of disk capacity for home directories, software, and temporary working directories.  A significant number of software packages are installed and maintained at ASC, including the molecular dynamics software LAMMPS, and the FEA software ABAQUS.  Standard software such as variety of compilers and mathematical packages as well as specialized software for fluid dynamics and molecular dynamics are available in these supercomputers.

·         An MTS axial servo-hydraulic material testing facility for fracture characterization of CT specimens, and tension/bending tests. The system consists of a closed-loop servo-hydraulic Material Test System, and a desk-top PC for control and data acquisition. The MTS machine has an axial actuator with a load capacity of up to 225 kN and a frequency for cyclic loading of up to 20 Hz. Several fixtures are available; they include a hydraulic wedge grip, and a self-aligned mechanical grip, and a temperature chamber. 

·         An ATS Series 2410 Lever Arm Creep Tester with a load capacity of 88.9 kN (20 kips), with environmental chamber and WinCCS software for data acquisition. 

·         A 30 cu-ft and a 16 cu-ft Cincinnati Subzero environmental chambers with a programmable temperature range of – 34 ºC to 190 ºC with 0.1 degree resolution, and a relative humidity range of 20% to 98% RH.

·         Several high-temperature ovens for curing of composite materials

·         A high precision digital balance with a resolution of 0.01mg for measurement of weight change of due to moisture absorption and oxidation.

·         FRP/polymer extrusion, pultrusion, filament winding, and VARTM fabrication facilities.

·         A chemical hood for safe mixing of epoxy and other chemical compounds.

·         An ultrasonic C-Scan system for non-destructive evaluation of damage in composite materials using resonance, pitch-catch, and magnetic impedance probes.  


Electron Microscopy:

Technai FEG-STEM: The University of Alabama was awarded a NSF-MRI (NSF Grant #0421376) for the acquisition of an advanced analytical Transmission Electron Microscope. An FEI Technai F20 Super-twin TEM was installed in January 2005. This 200 keV TEM utilizes a field emission gun (FEG) source that has a ΔE = 0.7 eV and a point resolution of 0.24 nm. The point resolution can be extended to the microscope’s information limit of 0.15 nm utilizing True-Image, an exit wave reconstruction software package. The TEM is equipped with a high annular angle dark field (HAADF) detector for atomic number contrast imaging. Additionally, the TEM can operate in a scanning TEM (STEM) imaging mode. By utilizing the HAADF-STEM imaging condition, the Technai can collect up to 140 images in a -70o to 70o tilt series for 3-diminsional tomography imaging of specimens. Digital microscopy is performed utilizing a 1k CCD camera. Finally, the TEM is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental mapping at a resolution of ~ 1nm.


Hitachi TEM:  The Central Analytical Facility (CAF) is equipped with a Hitachi 8000 - 200 kV Transmission Electron Microscope.  The TEM has scanning capabilities for STEM work.  It is also equipped with a NORAN Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) for X-ray analysis, and has a secondary electron detector for imaging. X-ray signals can also be used for X-ray mapping. 

JEOL SEM: The CAF has a JEOL 8600 Superprobe.  The microprobe is equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and five wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS). It has both back-scattered electron and secondary electron detectors for imaging. X-ray signals can also be used for X-ray mapping. 


Material Synthesis and Characterization:

Laboratory space available for material synthesis and characterization include thermal analysis equipment: (all TA Instruments) Model 2950 TGA Thermogravimetric Analyzer, Model 2970 DEA Dielectric Analyzer, and Model 2940TMA Thermomechanical Analyzer, and a Q200 Modulated DSC; two Instron automated materials testing machines (Models 4465 and 5581), along with a thermally-controlled water bath for testing biological materials, a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (Nicolet), a Rheometrics Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, a Shimadzu High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC-10AT), a Fisher microbalance, and access to NMR (Bruker AM-500 and Bruker AM-360) and EPR (Varian E-12) facilities. A gel permeation chromatograph (Shimadzu LC-10AT) with four columns (one mixed-bed) and a Refractive Index detector is also available. A Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer and a Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) system are available through colleagues in UA’s Department of Chemistry,


Polymer and Diffusion Characterization Tools:

The following equipment is available for characterizing diffusion behavior: a UV/Vis spectrophotometer equipped with a six-chamber flow-through cell apparatus (Shimadzu UV 2401-PC), a Distek (Model 2100C) 6-cell Type II US Pharmacopeia Dissolution Cell with autosampler, analytical balances with a density determination kit (Fisher, Ohaus), side-by-side membrane diffusion cells (Crown Glass Model DC-100B, 2 sets), a Labline Model 150 Incubating Oven, and an Accumet AR15 pH meter. Additional resources available in the PI’s laboratory include: a circulating chiller (Neslab RTE-111), water baths (Cole-Parmer Polystat Microprocessor 12003, Fisher Scientific Isotemp 210 and Precision Instruments Reciprocating Shaking Bath 25), a Centra CL-2 Centrifuge (International Equipment Company), a Low Temperature Incubating Oven (Fisher), Drying ovens (Fisher Isotemp 500 and Lab-line Instruments Imperial II), a vacuum oven (Fisher Isotemp Vacuum Oven 281A), and a Micromaster Optical Microscope equipped with a CCR camera (Fisher).


X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

The Surface Analysis Laboratory in the CAF has a Kratos AXIS 165 Multitechnique Electron Spectrometer acquired through the NSF Academic Research Infrastructure Grant.  AXIS 165 is equipped with both standard dual (Mg/Al) anode and monochromatic (Al) X-ray sources for XPS analysis and imaging; a 15 keV electron gun for AES analysis and Auger or secondary electron imaging; and a 5 keV ion gun for sputter depth profile, sample surface cleaning and sputter deposition.  The electron energy analyzer is a 165 mm mean radius concentric hemispherical analyzer equipped with 8 channeltron detectors.  Instrument control, data acquisition and data analysis are performed through the Kratos Vision 1.5 software operating on a Sun Sparc Station IV platform. 


X-ray Diffraction:

The Center has a Rigaku D/MAX-2BX Horizontal XRD Thin Film Diffractometer and a Philip X.Pert diffractometer. The Philips diffractometer can make low angle x-ray scattering measurements. 




A Skyscan 1172 µ-CT system is available for use as $62.5/hour in the Center for Advanced Research & Technology at UNT. The system can provide 3D scanning of internal structure for a sample with diameter up to 50 mm. The resolution of the system is 0.9 – 5 µm per pixel on each side of a voxel. The X-ray detector has a spatial resolution of 2400 × 4000 pixels, and a grayscale of 12 bit. The energy level provided by the system is adjustable, up to 100 kV. A computer cluster with Nrecon is equipped for fast 3D reconstruction of the tomographic image from the radiographs. A 1172-MTS compression stage is available for applying loads up to 444 N.


(VIII) Resources available at Lintec of America

In this project, we will collaborate with LINTEC OF AMERICA (please see the letter of support). LINTEC OF AMERICA, INC. is an important licensee of the work conducted at UTD in issued and filed patents for forest-drawn carbon nanotube sheets and derived yarns. LINTEC OF AMERICA opened their Nano-Science & Technology Center less than 5 miles from the NanoTech Institute at UTD for the purpose of commercializing the carbon nanotube related technologies. Though LINTEC OF AMERICA, INC. is a subsidiary of a very large Japanese corporation (Lintec Corporation, based in Japan), LINTEC OF AMERICA’s Nano-Science & Technology Center has created jobs in Texas, and the commercialization of NanoTech Institute’s  technologies are expected to create jobs in the United States and elsewhere. The use of minute amounts of wrapped carbon nanotube sheets for greatly enhancing the mechanical properties of carbon composites is potentially a game changer, and LINTEC OF AMERICA, INC. is happy to collaborate with the team on upscaling technology that will be developed for continuous manufacturing of tows of carbon fibers that are helically wrapped with carbon nanotubes. LINTEC OF AMERICA is well suited for collaboration with the project effort since (1) they have upscaled carbon nanotube sheet fabrication technology that was licensed from UTD and (2) they are world-recognized experts on roll-to-roll sheet processing, which could be modified to accelerate upscale of this program-developed processes.